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Style of causeRatio

Ford v Quebec (Attorney General), [1988] 2 SCR 712

Commercial advertising constitutes expression under section. 2(b).

Purpose of 2(b) of the Charter (the underlying principles):
** 1. Seeking truth as an inherently good activity;
** 2. Participation in social and political decision making is to be fostered and encouraged;
** 3. The diversity in forms of individual self-fulfillment and human flourishing ought to be cultivated, in an essentially tolerant environment, not only for the sake of those who convey a meaning but also for the sake of those to whom it is conveyed.

R v Keegstra, [1990] 3 SCR 697

The term expression embraces all content of expression irrespective of the particular meaning or message sought to be conveyed and no matter how invidious and obnoxious the message.